Affiliation and disaffiliation in the suburbsReflection on examples taken from Saint-Denis and Aubervilliers
The notion of disaffiliation put forward by Robert Castel is tested in this study in a specific area : the former red suburbs of Paris. The idea of disaffiliation, in a better way than exclusion or relegation, makes it possible to analyse the impact of casualization of the wage society. However, due to its Durkheim relations, this notion underestimates the contradictions with which social integration is permanently in conflict, and does not really mention counter affiliations which are important in these popular districts. The notion of anomie which is apparently closely related does not really express the serious conflicts of normative standards to be found in « incivilities ». Today, political and identity disaffiliation to the working-class town strengthens the effects of disaffiliation to the wage society. The reaffiliation processes which affect, on the one hand, the middle levels of wage earners, especially through the participative approach, on the other hand, a juvenile subculture which identifies itself in rap music, are heterogeneous and incomplete, indicating no clear line forward for the future.