Descendants of North African immigrants in France and Turkish immigrants in Germany : undergoing two types of social distancing
How do social inequalities and changes in those inequalities fit with the ways that descendants of immigrants participate in their given national frameworks at the historical, cultural, institutional and structural levels ? Analysis of two major surveys (France’s « Study of family history » [Étude de l’histoire familiale] and Germany’s « Socio-economic panel » [SOEP]) brings to light a contrast between descendants of Turkish immigrants in Germany and descendants of North African immigrants in France in connection with schooling and the labor market. The disadvantage that these two groups are at does not crystallize at the same point in their trajectories : Turkish immigrants’ descendants undergo exclusion relatively early, at the level of schooling (social distancing through relegation), whereas North African immigrants’ descendants get excluded when they arrive on the labor market (social distancing through discrimination). After presentation of the results, these two social dynamics and the mechanisms underlying them are discussed from a more theoretical perspective.