Users of paid private tutoring services : educational support courses and family shaping of schooling
On the basis of the « Education and family » (Éducation et famille) section of INSEE’s « Enquête permanente sur les conditions de vie des ménages » [Ongoing survey of household conditions] (EPCV, INSEE, October 2003), the demand for paid educational support courses in France is studied by comparing them to two other types of « shadow education » – free non-family educational support and support from family members –and examining relations between such courses and the other acts and attitudes implicated in family shaping of schooling. First, the suggestion is put forward that paid private tutoring, in contrast to free non-family educational support, is part of a constellation of practices that make up family attempts to construct an advantage on the schooling scene, an undertaking associated with strong educational and economic capital ; and that like free educational support, paid private tutoring implies an externalization of educational assistance that is closely related to household configuration. The need to treat a problem of perceived scholastic difficulties and the material resources a household has for doing so then appear central when it comes to apprehending the salient traits of the population of users of paid private tutoring services.
Keywords. PAID PRIVATE TUTORING – SHADOW EDUCATION – FAMILY ENVIRONMENT – MATERIAL INEQUALITIES – FRANCE