Influence of Religious Integration on Attitudes : a Comparative Analysis of European Countries
A panoramic view of religion in Europe is sketched on the basis of an international survey of religious attitudes (International Social Survey Programme, 1998). It is then shown that integration into a religious system (on a scale from « regular church-goer » to « no religion ») has significant effects on ethical and political attitudes (regarding sexual permissiveness, men’s and women’s roles in society, abortion, civic morality, confidence in institutions, political orientation). Whatever the European country, integration into Catholicism or Protestantism corresponds to attitudes that are more traditional, conformist, and politically to the right. No clear difference may be observed between Catholics and Protestants, groups that today are culturally fairly close.